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The key international oceanography programs use Argos to transmit data via satellite from ocean buoys to information networks shared by professionals around the word. Some of the major programs include:
Argo: Global ocean observing program
The Argo program comprises a network of oceanography floats belonging to 25 countries. The program's ultimate objective is to release 3000 floats covering ice-free areas to study long-term ocean variability. Data collected from these floats, including temperature and salinity profiles, are relayed by Argos. They are then distributed worldwide and posted on websites as well as specialized information networks. These data are giving scientists valuable information about the oceans and their role in shaping climate - a key element of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) seeking to ensure sustainable development of our planet. For more information: www.argo.net
Global Drifter Program
The goal of the Global Drifter Program is to produce new charts of seasonal surface circulation of the world ocean. The data collected via Argos, provides key information for scientists to study:
The specific areas of study for this program inclue: the Califoria current, Kuroshio, the Brazil Current and the North Atlantic subduction zone. For more information: www.aoml.noaa.gov/phod/dac/gdp.html
Triton: Moored Buoy Network
The Triton array of buoys or the Triangle Trans-Ocean buoy network, is a series of buoys for measuring surface meteorology and upper ocean. The buoys are deployed by JAMSTEC in collaboration with many countries in and around the Pacific Ocean as part of international climate research programs. The purpose of the program is for scientific research on warm water in the equatorial ocean affecting world climate change. For more information: www.jamstec.go.jp/jamstec/OCEAN/TRITON/
TAO (Tropical Atmospheric Ocean project): 70 buoys moored moorings in the Tropical Pacific Ocean
This long-term oceanography projects measures telemetering oceanographic and meteorological data in the Tropical Pacific Ocean region and sends them to shore in real-time via Argos.
The "array" of buoys is a major component of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Observing System, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Support is provided primarily by the United States (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and Japan (Japan Agency for Marine-earth Science and TEChnology) with additional contributions from France (Institut de recherche pour le developpement). For more information: www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/
Today, over 3000 animals are tracked via Argos. These include mammals, marine animals and birds all over the world. Biologists use satellite technology to learn more about the animals they are studying. Once this information collected and studied, conclusions can be drawn about migratory pathways, and animal's resting, breeding and wintering grounds, and the way the young become independent, they bring the authorities the information needed to set up protection programs. Thanks to Argos, decisions can be taken more on the basis of fact than guesswork.
Sea Turtle Tracking
The World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls
The W.W.G.B.P. has been active for thirty years and today plays an important role in the promotion of raptor conservation and research on an international level. Its membership list today comprises over 3,000 raptor specialists and enthusiasts in all parts of the world, and anybody with an interest in raptors is welcome to become a member. The W.W.G.B.P. is an active group tracking ??? birds a year for preventive measures. The data received from the satellite transmitters provides biologists with information on migration routes, resting and wintering areas, speed of migration, orientation, and dependence on weather conditions among other factors.
WFP (World Food Programme) of the United Nations: School Feeding
The United Nation's WFP, set up an Argos program starting in 2003 to monitor its School Feeding Program. The goal of the School Feeding Program is to improve education by encouraging enrollment and school retention in food insecure areas and vulnerable areas in developing countries. By using an Argos transmitter, an unit especially designed for this project, schools located in remote areas send monthly information via Argos including: number of children enrolled at school, pupils school attendance, number teachers, teachers attendance, the number of school days and days of distribution at school, the different types and quantity of food commodities received at the school and balance of food rations distributed. These important data are immediately available on-line and studied by International Organizations in order to provide the most valuable aid possible and where needed the most. For more information: www.wfp.org
Mentor Initiative Malaria prevention tools
The UK registered NGO, the Mentor Initiative, works in cooperation with Argos technology to provide test kits for Malaria. This includes fifty rugged Argos satellite transmitters that are supplied to remote health sites in Angola and Liberia. With continued funding, equipment will be supplied in Kenya, Chad, Congo and areas affected by the tsunami, including the Ache province. The transmitters include a large numeric keypad and icon based display that health workers used to transfer data out disease outbreaks. The data are transferred through Argos and redirected to the WHO and the country Ministry of Health were the outbreak is occurring. Early detection and treatment is critical to preventing epidemics and by using satellite to transmit information, world health organizations can set-up effective aid.
Indonesian Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries: The world's largest VMS
The Indonesian Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries chose Argos for their nationwide Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) which is currently the largest operational VMS in the world.
Initially 1500 fishing vessels were fitted with Argos transmitters, three fisheries monitoring centers set up, and 15 patrol boats equipped with a direct data receiving system which enables the Indonesian government to patrol their waters and prevent illegal fishing.
Peruvian Fishing Vessels
Over 1000 fishing vessels are tracked in Peruvian waters by Argos. The Peruvian government implemented a national fishing Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) in 1998 to monitor and track all fishing vessels in its Exclusive Economic Zone. One of the first major VMS system's in the world, the system continues to operate today and is a reference for other countries wishing to implement similar fisheries management capabilities.
Korea Squid fishing tracked in Russian Waters
The "Korean Squid Fishing Association" has 102 fishing veesels which are to be equipped with an Argos satellite transmitter for their fishing campaigns in Russia. The campaigns run annually from July until September and the transmitters are financed in part by the MOMA (Korean Government Authority).